The more sensors, the better measurement. Today, many sensors are not fully used in cities, so we will rely on cheaper versions and crowdsourcing to fully understand the level pollution in our cities.

Nanobionic plants have embedded nanoparticles in the leaves of the plant, and this allows them to get new functions using the energy metabolism of the plant itself. Currently, they can have the technology to use as dim lights, however, in the future, they might be able to be used as streetlights or to sense environment quality.

Companies, such as Uber, Nasa and Airbus, and driving new advances for passenger drones, which could potentially become a new transport mode for cities.

The precision of lasers allow us to see the smaller particles, revealing things such as smoke, smog, and aerosols.

If buildings used transparent solar cells instead of windows, then these could account for 40 per cent of electricity, provided its used on the 5-7 billion square meters of the glass surface in the UK.

A completely different engineering solution is necessary- this system needs to couple with natural systems, so as not to depend solely on mechanical systems. Air Quality models are an essential part to understand and predict the complex air flows and pollution concentrations at the building, block, borough and city scales.

New coatings can become the basis for artificial moons, reflecting light from the sun using solar panel-like wings, whose angles can be adjusted to concentrate the light on a precise location. These moons can replace streetlight at night.

The new pervasiveness of drones and issues of privacy is seeing an emergence of start-ups focusing on techniques that block drone technologies from near the buildings.

Creating better productions that allow for a more efficient photosynthesis. This could also move into making inanimate objects create their own artificial photosyntesis.

Microalgae that can purify air, and also produce biofuels.The microalgae consume CO2, which is essential to their growth. As a by-product they release oxygen into the air for us to breathe.